Frequently asked questions about in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence: Practical issues

Hazem M. Kalaji, Gert Schansker, Richard J. Ladle, Vasilij Goltsev, Karolina Bosa, Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev, Marian Brestic, Filippo Bussotti, Angeles Calatayud, Piotr Dąbrowski, Nabil I. Elsheery, Lorenzo Ferroni, Lucia Guidi, Sander W. Hogewoning, Anjana Jajoo, Amarendra N. Misra, Sergio G. Nebauer, Simonetta Pancaldi, Consuelo Penella, Dorothybelle PoliMartina Pollastrini, Zdzislawa B. Romanowska-Duda, Beata Rutkowska, João Serôdio, Kancherla Suresh, Wiesław Szulc, Eduardo Tambussi, Marcos Yanniccari, Marek Zivcak

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

585 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this educational review is to provide practical information on the hardware, methodology, and the hands on application of chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence technology. We present the paper in a question and answer format like frequently asked questions. Although nearly all information on the application of Chl a fluorescence can be found in the literature, it is not always easily accessible. This paper is primarily aimed at scientists who have some experience with the application of Chl a fluorescence but are still in the process of discovering what it all means and how it can be used. Topics discussed are (among other things) the kind of information that can be obtained using different fluorescence techniques, the interpretation of Chl a fluorescence signals, specific applications of these techniques, and practical advice on different subjects, such as on the length of dark adaptation before measurement of the Chl a fluorescence transient. The paper also provides the physiological background for some of the applied procedures. It also serves as a source of reference for experienced scientists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-158
Number of pages38
JournalPhotosynthesis research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Chlorophyll a fluorescence
  • Complementary techniques
  • Fluorescence imaging
  • Frequently asked questions
  • Photosynthesis
  • Plant stress monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology


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