Introduction: Gastric adenomas are histologically defined as benign epithelial tumors. While some of them remain adenomas for a long time, others progress to carcinomas. However, long-term outcomes of such cases are not entirely clear. Here, we explored the risk factors and incidence of developing carcinoma from gastric adenoma as well as metachronous gastric cancer. Methods: This study was conducted at a facility that adopted a follow-up strategy for gastric adenoma. Lesions histologically diagnosed as gastric intestinal-type adenomas between January 2004 and December 2016 were analyzed. Clinicopathological data were collected from patients' medical records, and histological changes from adenoma to carcinoma during endoscopic follow-up and risk factors of cancer development were evaluated. Results: This study involved 409 lesions from 376 patients. The analysis of the development of gastric cancer from adenoma and metachronous gastric cancer was ultimately performed for 282 lesions from 258 patients and 269 lesions from 246 patients, respectively, due to different follow-up periods. The 5-year rate of carcinoma development was 34.0%. Risk factors for carcinoma development upon multivariate analysis were lesion size ≥15 mm and morphological depression. All cases with both factors developed gastric carcinoma, and 50.5% of those with either factor developed carcinoma within 5 years. Gastric adenoma was accompanied by metachronous gastric cancer in 1.5% of the patients annually. The only risk factor for metachronous gastric carcinoma was primary adenoma progressing to carcinoma during the follow-up period. Discussion/Conclusion: Given the high rate of carcinoma development in patients with risk factors, resection of gastric adenoma should be considered during the initial examination. Careful observation and follow-up should also be conducted to detect not only changes in the primary adenoma but also the occurrence of metachronous carcinoma, especially in cases of adenoma progressing to carcinoma.
- Gastric adenoma
- Gastric adenoma develop carcinoma
- Long-term follow-up
- Metachronous gastric cancer
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