Predator avoidance is an important behavior that affects the degree of adaptation of organisms. We compared the DNA variation of one of the predator-avoidance behaviors, the recently extensively studied "death-feigning behavior”, between the long strain bred for feigning death for a long time and the short strain bred for feigning death for a short time. To clarify how the difference in DNA sequences between the long and short strains corresponds to the physiological characteristics of the death-feigning duration at the transcriptome level, we performed comprehensive and comparative analyses of gene variants in Tribolium castaneum strains using DNA-resequencing. The duration of death feigning involves many gene pathways, including caffeine metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, longevity regulating pathways, and circadian rhythm. Artificial selection based on the duration of death feigning results in the preservation of variants of genes in these pathways in the long strain. This study suggests that many metabolic pathways and related genes may be involved in the decision-making process of anti-predator animal behavior by forming a network in addition to the tyrosine metabolic system, including dopamine, revealed in previous studies.
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