Gingival cell proliferation induced by use of a sonic toothbrush with warmed silicone rubber bristles

Takaaki Tomofuji, Hiroki Kusano, Tetsuji Azuma, Daisuke Ekuni, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Tatsuo Watanabe, Takashi Kishimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Toothbrushing promotes gingival cell proliferation, which may occur as the result of the physical stimulation of the gingiva. The present study evaluated the effects of temperature and silicone rubber bristles of a sonic toothbrush on gingival cell proliferation in dogs. Methods: During the 5-week experimental period, one quadrant in each of eight dogs received a different toothbrushing regimen: a manual toothbrush or a sonic toothbrush with 1) nylon, 2) silicone rubber, or 3) warmed silicone rubber bristles. The proliferative activity of gingival cells was evaluated based on expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results: Use of the sonic toothbrushes produced a higher density of PCNA-positive and total fibroblasts than did use of a manual toothbrush. The warm silicone rubber bristles resulted in a higher density of PCNA-positive fibroblasts compared with the cooler silicone rubber bristle. The number of PCNA-positive basal cells in the junctional epithelium also increased following electric toothbrushing with warmed silicone rubber bristles. Conclusions: The sonic toothbrush with silicone rubber bristles induced gingival fibroblast proliferation to a greater degree than a manual toothbrush. Warming the silicone rubber bristles increased their stimulatory effects on the proliferative activity of gingival cell.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1636-1639
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004


  • Animal studies
  • Antigens, nuclear
  • Cells, gingival
  • Comparison studies
  • Silicone elastomers
  • Toothbrushing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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