Hierarchical spread spectrum fingerprinting scheme based on the CDMA technique

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Digital fingerprinting is a method to insert user's own ID into digital contents in order to identify illegal users who distribute unauthorized copies. One of the serious problems in a fingerprinting system is the collusion attack such that several users combine their copies of the same content to modify/delete the embedded fingerprints. In this paper, we propose a collusion-resistant fingerprinting scheme based on the CDMA technique. Our fingerprint sequences are orthogonal sequences of DCT basic vectors modulated by PN sequence. In order to increase the number of users, a hierarchical structure is produced by assigning a pair of the fingerprint sequences to a user. Under the assumption that the frequency components of detected sequences modulated by PN sequence follow Gaussian distribution, the design of thresholds and the weighting of parameters are studied to improve the performance. The robustness against collusion attack and the computational costs required for the detection are estimated in our simulation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number502782
JournalEurasip Journal on Information Security
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Science Applications


Dive into the research topics of 'Hierarchical spread spectrum fingerprinting scheme based on the CDMA technique'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this