Image-based sizing of surface-breaking cracks by SH-wave array ultrasonic testing

K. Kimoto, S. Ueno, S. Hirose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents calibration-free crack sizing techniques based on ultrasonic imaging. The techniques are intended for 2D (line) surface-breaking cracks with the size of the incident wavelength or greater. The probing wave mode is the anti-plane shear wave (SH-wave). Two methods are employed for the ultrasonic imaging. One is a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and the other is a computed time-reversal focusing technique (TRFT). In this paper, those methods are modified so that crack tips are located directly from measured A-scope waveforms without any calibration experiments. The results are shown as a peak in the ultrasonic image created by the respective methods. Reasonable accuracies of the proposed techniques are demonstrated first for the sizing of slits with known depths. The techniques are applied thereafter to the sizing of fatigue cracks. Since fatigue cracks may not be open without an external load, ultrasonic measurements are taken with and without external loads. The results of the imaging show that the depths of open cracks can be estimated accurately. It is also shown that crack opening (closing) behavior can be deduced by observing appearance (disappearance) of the peak in the images indicating the crack tip.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152-164
Number of pages13
Issue number1-4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Crack sizing
  • Fatigue crack
  • Synthetic aperture focusing
  • Time-reversal focusing
  • Ultrasonic imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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