Impact of citrus agriculture on the quality of water resource in a small Steep Island, Seto Inland Sea, Japan

Sharon Bih Kimbi, Shin Ichi Onodera, Shingo Nozaki, Yusuke Tomozawa, Kunyang Wang, Anna Fadliah Rusydi, Mitsuyo Saito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Groundwater is an extremely valuable resource thus its pollution a call for concern. Amongst the major threats, agricultural leachates often contribute significantly to groundwater pollution. This paper reports an investigation on the effects of citrus agriculture on the groundwater quality aspects of Osakishimojima island. Fifty-one groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for major ions and nutrients. The Gibbs diagram revealed that the overall hydrogeochemical environment of the study area is controlled by rock-water interaction. Two main hydrochemical facies (CaMg-HCO3 and CaMg-SO4) were identified. 48 groundwater samples showed PO43-P content (0.06 - 3.2 mg/L), which exceeds WHO’s recommended maximum permissible limit. High contamination of PO43-P was noticed at depth zones between 3 to 6 m while the highest concentrations were found at depths of 5 m. NO3-N contamination of groundwater was also observed to decrease with depth. High levels of PO43-P in groundwater may be as a result of heavy fertilizer application by farmers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-114
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of GEOMATE
Issue number82
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Citrus agriculture
  • Contamination
  • Groundwater quality
  • Osakishimojima
  • Seto Inland Sea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Soil Science


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