Impact of maternal and paternal smoking on birth outcomes

Sachiko Inoue, Hiroo Naruse, Takashi Yorifuji, Tsuguhiko Kato, Takeshi Murakoshi, Hiroyuki Doi, S. V. Subramanian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Background The adverse effects of maternal and paternal smoking on child health have been studied. However, few studies demonstrate the interaction effects of maternal/paternal smoking, and birth outcomes other than birth weight have not been evaluated. The present study examined individual effects of maternal/paternal smoking and their interactions on birth outcomes. Methods A follow-up hospital-based study from pregnancy to delivery was conducted from 1997 to 2010 with parents and newborn infants who delivered at a large hospital in Hamamatsu, Japan. The relationships between smoking and growth were evaluated with logistic regression. Results The individual effects of maternal smoking are related to low birth weight (LBW), short birth length and small head circumference. The individual effects of paternal smoking are related to short birth length and small head circumference. In the adjusted model, both parents' smoking showed clear associations with LBW (odds ratio [OR] ¼ 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.27) and short birth length (21 standard deviation [SD] OR ¼ 1.38, 95% CI 1.07-1.79; 22 SD OR ¼ 2.75, 95% CI 1.84-4.10). Conclusions Maternal smoking was significantly associated with birth weight and length, but paternal smoking was not. However, if both parents smoked, the risk of shorter birth length increased.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-566
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Public Health (United Kingdom)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1 2017


  • Birth length
  • Birth weight
  • Head circumference
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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