In vitro assessment of factors afecting the apparent difusion coefcient of jurkat cells using bio-phantoms

Kazunori Katashima, Masahiro Kuroda, Masakazu Ashida, Takanori Sasaki, Takehito Taguchi, Hidenobu Matsuzaki, Jun Murakami, Yoshinobu Yanagi Hisatomi, Marina Hara, Hirokazu Kato, Yuichi Ohmura, Tomoki Kobayashi, Susumu Kanazawa, Sosuke Harada, Mitsuhiro Takemoto, Seiichiro Ohno, Seiichi Mimura, Junichi Asaumi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


It is well known that many tumor tissues show lower apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and that several factors are involved in the reduction of ADC values. The aim of this study was to clarify how much each factor contributes to decreases in ADC values. We investigate the roles of cell density, extracellular space, intracellular factors, apoptosis and necrosis in ADC values using bio-phantoms. The ADC values of bio-phantoms, in which Jurkat cells were encapsulated by gellan gum, were measured by a 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging device with constant diffusion time of 30 sec. Heating at 42° C was used to induce apoptosis while heating at 48°C was used to induce necrosis. Cell death after heating was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and electron microscopy. The ADC values of bio-phantoms including non-heated cells decreased linearly with increases in cell density, and showed a steep decline when the distance between cells became less than 3/um. The analysis of ADC values of cells after destruction of cellular structures by sonication suggested that approximately two-thirds of the ADC values of cells originate from their cellular structures. The ADC values of bio-phantoms including necrotic cells increased while those including apoptotic cells decreased. This study quantitatively clarified the role of the cellular factors and the extracellular space in determining the ADC values produced by tumor cells. The intermediate diffusion time of 30 msec might be optimal to distinguish between apoptosis and necrosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)359-367
Number of pages9
JournalActa medica Okayama
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • ADC
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell density
  • Hyperthermia
  • Necrosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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