Infective Endocarditis Is a Risk Factor for Heparin Resistance in Adult Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures: A Retrospective Study

Yoshikazu Kimura, Shuji Okahara, Kanae Abo, Yusuke Koyama, Mitsuhito Kuriyama, Kazumi Ono, Hidekuni Hidaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Heparin resistance (HR), defined as a decrease in heparin responsiveness, can result in adverse events with prolonged duration of surgery. Although some clinical risk factors have been suggested, the relationship with the surgical diagnosis is unclear. The aim of present study was to elucidate the clinical predictors of HR including the surgical diagnosis. Design: This retrospective cohort study determined the incidence of HR (defined as activated clotting time [ACT] <400 seconds after 250-350 IU/kg of heparin administration) and heparin sensitivity index (HSI) was calculated from the rate of change in ACT per heparin dose. Preoperative demographic data, medication history, and laboratory data also were analyzed. Setting: Single institution, tertiary care hospital. Participants: Adult patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass between January 2012 and September 2018. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Of 287 patients, 88 (30.7%) were classified as HR. In univariate analysis, infective endocarditis (IE), platelet count, and serum fibrinogen and albumin levels were associated with HR. After adjustment for baseline ACT and initial heparin dose, IE (odds ratio 4.57, [95% CI: 1.10-19.1]; p = 0.037) and albumin ≤3.5 g/dL (3.17, [1.46-6.93]; p = 0.004) were associated independently with HR. Patients with IE had significantly lower HSI than those with other diseases. All HR patients were treated with additional heparin, and 17 of them received human antithrombin-III concentrate. Conclusions: Infective endocarditis and preoperative hypoalbuminemia were associated independently with HR. The optimal anticoagulation strategy for patients with these risk factors requires further investigations based on the authors’ findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3568-3573
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • anticoagulation
  • cardiopulmonary bypass
  • heparin resistance
  • hypoalbuminemia
  • infective endocarditis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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