Inhibitory Effects of Polymyxin B and Human LL-37 on the Flagellin Expression in Vibrio vulnificus

Shin Ichi Miyoshi, Mika Kumagai, Ryousuke Tanida, Kohei Soda, Yuri Yoshimoto, Tamaki Mizuno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for primary septicemia, initiates pathogenesis by attachment to the intestinal epithelial cells for which the motility by the polar flagellum plays an essential role. The proteomic analysis of outer membrane proteins showed that the treatment with the 1/2 minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)of polymyxin B(a bacterial antimicrobial peptide)led to the reduced production of flagellin(a major component of the polar flagellum). Furthermore, the bacterial motility was inhibited in the presence of 1/2 MIC of polymyxin B. V. vulnificus has six flagellin genes organized into the flaFBA and flaCDE loci. The flaA was found to be expressed higher than flaC, and its expression was significantly decreased by polymyxin B. As well as polymyxin B, the 1/2 MIC of LL-37(a human intestinal antimicrobial peptide)reduced the expression of flaA. In addition, among four fragments of LL-37, KI-18 and FK-13 containing F17KRIVQRIKDELR29 could lead to the decreased expression of flaA. Because the motility closely relates to virulence of V. vulnificus, the findings obtained herein indicate that LL-37 may reduce the bacterial virulence through inhibition of the motility via the polar flagellum.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-64
Number of pages8
JournalBiocontrol science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Antimicrobial peptide
  • LL-37 / Flagellin
  • Polymyxin B
  • Vibrio vulnificus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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