Insomnia among Japanese adolescents: A nationwide representative survey

Yoshitaka Kaneita, Takashi Ohida, Yoneatsu Osaki, Takeo Tanihata, Masumi Minowa, Kenji Suzuki, Kiyoshi Wada, Hideyuki Kanda, Kenji Hayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

113 Citations (Scopus)


Study Objectives: Although a number of previous studies have examined the prevalence of insomnia among adolescents, there have been very few nationwide studies. The objectives of this nationwide study were to clarify the prevalence of insomnia, its symptoms, and associated factors among Japanese adolescents. Design and Setting: This study was designed as a cross-sectional sampling survey. The targets were junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Sample schools were selected by cluster sampling. Self-reported anonymous questionnaires were sent to schools for all students to fill out. Participants: A total of 103,650 adolescents responded, and 102,451 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: The prevalence of difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning awakening was 14.8%, 11.3%, and 5.5%, respectively. Insomnia was defined as the presence of one or more of these three symptoms. The prevalence of insomnia was 23.5%. Multivariate analyses revealed that, among junior high school students, male sex, poor mental health, skipping breakfast, drinking alcohol, smoking, not participating in extracurricular activities, and late bedtime had significantly higher odds ratios for insomnia. Among senior high school students, the same characteristics were associated with a significantly higher odds ratio for insomnia, as was the additional factor of having no intent to study at university. Conclusion: Insomnia in Japanese adolescents is common and associated with multiple factors. The results of this study suggest the need for comprehensive program to prevent insomnia in Japanese adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1543-1550
Number of pages8
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescents
  • Insomnia
  • Japan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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