Interconnection between cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders: A narrative review with a focus on Japan

Takashi Kadowaki, Hiroshi Maegawa, Hirotaka Watada, Daisuke Yabe, Koichi Node, Toyoaki Murohara, Jun Wada

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Insights from epidemiological, clinical and basic research are illuminating the interplay between metabolic disorders, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and kidney dysfunction, termed cardio-renal-metabolic (CRM) disease. Broadly defined, CRM disease involves multidirectional interactions between metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), various types of CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD). T2D confers increased risk for heart failure, which—although well known—has only recently come into focus for treatment, and may differ by ethnicity, whereas atherosclerotic heart disease is a well-established complication of T2D. Many people with T2D also have CKD, with a higher risk in Asians than their Western counterparts. Furthermore, CVD increases the risk of CKD and vice versa, with heart failure, notably, present in approximately half of CKD patients. Molecular mechanisms involved in CRM disease include hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, production of advanced glycation end-products, oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum stress, calcium-handling abnormalities, mitochondrial malfunction and deficient energy production, and chronic inflammation. Pathophysiological manifestations of these processes include diabetic cardiomyopathy, vascular endothelial dysfunction, cardiac and renal fibrosis, glomerular hyperfiltration, renal hypoperfusion and venous congestion, reduced exercise tolerance leading to metabolic dysfunction, and calcification of atherosclerotic plaque. Importantly, recognition of the interaction between CRM diseases would enable a more holistic approach to CRM care, rather than isolated treatment of individual conditions, which may improve patient outcomes. Finally, aspects of CRM diseases may differ between Western and East Asian countries such as Japan, a super-ageing country, with potential differences in epidemiology, complications and prognosis that represent an important avenue for future research.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • cardiovascular disease
  • diabetic nephropathy
  • heart failure
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


Dive into the research topics of 'Interconnection between cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders: A narrative review with a focus on Japan'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this