Purpose: To determine the risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after the injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA). Design: Retrospective interventional case-control study. Methods: setting: Multicenter. patient population: Four hundred and twenty-seven patients. observation procedures: Intraocular pressure levels after TA treatment by the sub-Tenon capsule injection (STI; 12 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg), intravitreal injection (IVI; 4 mg or 8 mg), or the combination of STI (20 mg) and IVI (4 mg), and IOP levels after two TA treatments. main outcome measure: Risk factors for IOP levels of 24 mm Hg or higher. Results: Younger age (hazards ratio [HR], 0.96/year; P < .0001), IVI (HR, 1.89/year; P < .0001), and higher baseline IOP (HR, 1.15/mm Hg; P = .003) were identified as risk factors. Dose dependency was shown in STI-treated eyes (HR, 1.07/mg; P = .0006), as well as after IVI (HR, 1.64/mg; P = .013). The combination of STI and IVI was a significant risk factor (HR, 2.27; P = .003) compared with STI alone. In eyes receiving two TA treatments, IVI (HR, 2.60; P = .010), higher IOP elevation after the first injection (HR, 1.18/mm Hg; P = .011), and increased dosage of STI (HR, 1.07/mm Hg; P = .033) were risk factors. Conclusions: Younger age, higher baseline IOP, IVI, and increased TA dosage were associated with TA-induced IOP elevation. IOP elevation after repeated TA injection was frequently associated with eyes treated with IVI, high IOP elevation after the first injection, and high doses of STI.
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