L-Met Activates Arabidopsis GLR Ca2+ Channels Upstream of ROS Production and Regulates Stomatal Movement

Dongdong Kong, Heng Cheng Hu, Eiji Okuma, Yuree Lee, Hui Sun Lee, Shintaro Munemasa, Daeshik Cho, Chuanli Ju, Leah Pedoeim, Barbara Rodriguez, Juan Wang, Wonpil Im, Yoshiyuki Murata, Zhen Ming Pei, June M. Kwak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)


Plant glutamate receptor homologs (GLRs) have long been proposed to function as ligand-gated Ca2+ channels, but no in planta evidence has been provided. Here, we present genetic evidence that Arabidopsis GLR3.1 and GLR3.5 form Ca2+ channels activated by L-methionine (L-Met) at physiological concentrations and regulate stomatal apertures and plant growth. The glr3.1/3.5 mutations resulted in a lower cytosolic Ca2+ level, defective Ca2+-induced stomatal closure, and Ca2+-deficient growth disorder, all of which involved L-Met. Patch-clamp analyses of guard cells showed that GLR3.1/3.5 Ca2+ channels are activated specifically by L-Met, with the activation abolished in glr3.1/3.5. Moreover, GLR3.1/3.5 Ca2+ channels are distinct from previously characterized ROS-activated Ca2+ channels and act upstream of ROS, providing Ca2+ transients necessary for the activation of NADPH oxidases. Our data indicate that GLR3.1/3.5 constitute L-Met-activated Ca2+ channels responsible for maintaining basal [Ca2+]cyt, play a pivotal role in plant growth, and act upstream of ROS, thereby regulating stomatal aperture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2553-2561
Number of pages9
JournalCell Reports
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Dec 6 2016


  • Ca channel
  • Ca deficiency
  • L-methionine
  • glutamate receptor homologs
  • guard cell
  • reactive oxygen species
  • stomatal movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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