Lipopolysaccharide induces proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in experimental otitis media through the prostaglandin D2 receptor (DP)-dependent pathway

M. Eguchi, S. Kariya, M. Okano, T. Higaki, S. Makihara, T. Fujiwara, K. Nagata, H. Hirai, S. Narumiya, M. Nakamura, K. Nishizaki

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18 Citations (Scopus)


Otitis media is one of the most common and intractable ear diseases, and is the major cause of hearing loss, especially in children. Multiple factors affect the onset or development of otitis media. Prostaglandin D2 is the major prostanoid involved in infection and allergy. However, the role of prostaglandin D2 and prostaglandin D2 receptors on the pathogenesis of otitis media remains to be determined. Recent studies show that D prostanoid receptor (DP) and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 (Th2) cells (CRTH2) are major prostaglandin D2 receptors. In this study, homozygous DP single gene-deficient (DP-/-) mice, CRTH2 single gene-deficient (CRTH2-/-) mice and DP/CRTH2 double gene-deficient (DP-/- CRTH2-/-) mice were used to investigate the role of prostaglandin D2 and its receptors in otitis media. We demonstrate that prostaglandin D2 is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of Gram-negative bacteria, and that transtympanic injection of prostaglandin D2 up-regulates macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the middle ear. We also show that middle ear inflammatory reactions, including infiltration of inflammatory cells and expression of MIP-2, IL-1β and IL-6 induced by LPS, are reduced significantly in DP-/- mice and DP-/- CRTH2-/- mice. CRTH2-/- mice display inflammatory reactions similar to wild-type mice. These findings indicate that prostaglandin D2 may play significant roles in LPS-induced experimental otitis media via DP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260-269
Number of pages10
JournalClinical and Experimental Immunology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011


  • Animal models/studies-mice/rats
  • Cytokine/interleukin/chemokine receptors
  • Ear immunology/disease
  • Eicosanoids
  • Inflammation/inflammatory mediators
  • Otitis media

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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