Maternal Gut Microbiome Decelerates Fetal Endochondral Bone Formation by Inducing Inflammatory Reaction

Yoko Uchida-Fukuhara, Takako Hattori, Shanqi Fu, Sei Kondo, Miho Kuwahara, Daiki Fukuhara, Md Monirul Islam, Kota Kataoka, Daisuke Ekuni, Satoshi Kubota, Manabu Morita, Mika Iikegame, Hirohiko Okamura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


To investigate the effect of the maternal gut microbiome on fetal endochondral bone formation, fetuses at embryonic day 18 were obtained from germ-free (GF) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) pregnant mothers. Skeletal preparation of the fetuses’ whole bodies did not show significant morphological alterations; however, micro-CT analysis of the tibiae showed a lower bone volume fraction in the SPF tibia. Primary cultured chondrocytes from fetal SPF rib cages showed a lower cell proliferation and lower accumulation of the extracellular matrix. RNA-sequencing analysis showed the induction of inflammation-associated genes such as the interleukin (IL) 17 receptor, IL 6, and immune-response genes in SPF chondrocytes. These data indicate that the maternal gut microbiome in SPF mice affects fetal embryonic endochondral ossification, possibly by changing the expression of genes related to inflammation and the immune response in fetal cartilage. The gut microbiome may modify endochondral ossification in the fetal chondrocytes passing through the placenta.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1000
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • endochondral ossification
  • fetal chondrocytes
  • maternal microbiome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology


Dive into the research topics of 'Maternal Gut Microbiome Decelerates Fetal Endochondral Bone Formation by Inducing Inflammatory Reaction'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this