Modification at the acidic domain of RXR agonists has little effect on permissive RXR-heterodimer activation

Shuji Fujii, Fuminori Ohsawa, Shoya Yamada, Ryosuke Shinozaki, Ryosuke Fukai, Makoto Makishima, Shuichi Enomoto, Akihiro Tai, Hiroki Kakuta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) function as homo- or heterodimers with other nuclear receptors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are targets for treatment of hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes, or liver X receptors (LXRs), which are involved in glucose/lipid metabolism. PPAR/RXR or LXR/RXR are known as permissive RXR-heterodimers because they are activated by RXR agonists alone. Interestingly, the pattern of RXR-heterodimer activation is different depending on the RXR agonist structure, but the structure-activity relationship has not been reported. Here we show that modification or replacement of the carboxyl group in the acidic domain of RXR agonists has little or no effect on permissive RXR-heterodimer activation. Phosphonic acid (9), tetrazole (10), and hydroxamic acid (12) analogues were synthesized from the common bromo intermediate 7. Except for 9, these compounds showed RXR full-agonistic activities in the concentration range of 1-10 μM. The order of agonistic activity toward both PPARγ/RXRα and LXRα/RXRα was the same as it was for RXR, that is, 11 > 10 > 12. These results should be useful for the development of RXR agonists with improved bioavailability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5139-5142
Number of pages4
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1 2010


  • Carboxylic analogues
  • Docking simulation
  • LXR
  • PPAR
  • Permissive heterodimers
  • RXR agonists

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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