We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the largest segment S1 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus (RDV), a member of the family Reoviridae. S1 is 4423 nucleotides long with a segment-specific inverted repeat located adjacent to the conserved termini (5′GGCAAA- - -UGAU3′). A major open reading frame (bases 36 to 4367) on the S1 plus strand, which is preceded by a minicistron (bases 6 to 29), encodes the polypeptide (P1) consisting of 1444 amino acids with a Mr of 164, 142. The sense-strand transcript derived from the full-length S1 cDNA, the minicistron of which was abolished, directed the synthesis of a polypeptide of 170 kDa in addition to smaller polypeptides in wheat germ extracts, and the 170-kDa product comigrated with the minor core protein in SDS-polyacrylamide gel. Thus, P1 is assumed to be localized in the viral core particle. The consensus sequence element conserved in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase is observed in the P1 amino acid sequence predicted from the nucleotide sequence. Based on the dendrogram established from the sequence alignment around the polymerase module region, and sequence identity within the alignment, P1 of plant-infecting RDV was evolutionarily compared with VP1, λ3, and VP1 of three other animal-infecting members of the family, rota-, reo-, and bluetongue viruses. Consequently, RDV S1 was shown to be more closely related to the rotavirus gene segment 1, in terms of molecular evolution, than the animal-infecting members are to one another.
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