Molecular and structural patterns of bone regeneration in surgically created defects containing bone substitutes

Ibrahim Elgali, Kazuyo Igawa, Anders Palmquist, Maria Lennerås, Wei Xia, Sungjin Choi, Ung Il Chung, Omar Omar, Peter Thomsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Several biomaterials have been introduced for bone augmentation. However, information is lacking about the mechanisms of bone regeneration and/or integration of these materials in the recipient bone. This study aimed to determine the molecular and structural events in bone defects after augmentation with synthetic tetrapod-shaped calcium phosphate (Tetrabone; TetraB) compared with natural deproteinized bovine bone (DBB). Defects were created in the epiphyses of rat femurs and filled with TetraB or DBB or left empty (Sham). After 3, 6, 14 and 28 d, samples were harvested for histology, histomorphometry, ultrastructure and gene expression analyses. At 3 d, higher expressions of bone formation (ALP and OC) and remodeling (CatK) genes were detected in TetraB compared with DBB and Sham. Downregulation of bone remodeling genes (TRAP and CatK) was detected in DBB as compared to Sham after 14 d. Histomorphometry at 6 and 14 d demonstrated greater bone contact with the granules in TetraB. At 28 d, a larger bone area per defect was found in TetraB. The present experiments show that a synthetic substitute, consisting of α-tricalcium and octacalcium phosphates, induces early osteogenic and osteoclastic activities and promotes bone formation in trabecular bone defects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3229-3242
Number of pages14
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Deproteinized bovine bone
  • Gene expression
  • In vivo
  • Octacalcium phosphate
  • Ultrastructure
  • α-Tricalcium phosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials


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