Molecular characterization and mapping of ALMT1, the aluminium-tolerance gene of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Harsh Raman, Kerong Zhang, Mehmet Cakir, Rudi Appels, David F. Garvin, Lyza G. Maron, Leon V. Kochian, J. Sergio Moroni, Rosy Raman, Muhammad Imtiaz, Fiona Drake-Brockman, Irene Waters, Peter Martin, Takayuki Sasaki, Yoko Yamamoto, Hideaki Matsumoto, Diane M. Hebb, Emmanuel Delhaize, Peter R. Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

142 Citations (Scopus)


The major aluminum (Al) tolerance gene in wheat ALMT1 confers an Al-activated efflux of malate from root apices. We determined the genomic structure of the ALMT1 gene and found it consists of 6 exons interrupted by 5 introns. Sequencing a range of wheat genotypes identified 3 alleles for ALMT1, 1 of which was identical to the ALMT1 gene from an Aegilops tauschii accession. The ALMT1 gene was mapped to chromosome 4DL using 'Chinese Spring' deletion lines, and loss of ALMT1 coincided with the loss of both Al tolerance and Al-activated malate efflux. Aluminium tolerance in each of 5 different doubled-haploid populations was found to be conditioned by a single major gene. When ALMT1 was polymorphic between the parental lines, QTL and linkage analyses indicated that ALMT1 mapped to chromosome 4DL and cosegregated with Al tolerance. In 2 populations examined, Al tolerance also segregated with a greater capacity for Al-activated malate efflux. Aluminium tolerance was not associated with a particular coding allele for ALMT1, but was significantly correlated with the relative level of ALMT1 expression. These findings suggest that the Al tolerance in a diverse range of wheat genotypes is primarily conditioned by ALMT1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)781-791
Number of pages11
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2005


  • Aluminum
  • Deletion mapping
  • Genetic marker
  • QTL
  • Tolerance
  • Triticum aestivum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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