Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Kinase Signal Transduction

Hiroshi Tokumitsu, Hiroyuki Sakagami

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) is the activating kinase for multiple downstream kinases, including CaM-kinase I (CaMKI), CaM-kinase IV (CaMKIV), protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), and 5′AMP-kinase (AMPK), through the phosphorylation of their activation-loop Thr residues in response to increasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, as CaMKK itself is a Ca2+/CaM-dependent enzyme. The CaMKK-mediated kinase cascade plays important roles in a number of Ca2+-dependent pathways, such as neuronal morphogenesis and plasticity, transcriptional activation, autophagy, and metabolic regulation, as well as in pathophysiological pathways, including cancer progression, metabolic syndrome, and mental disorders. This review focuses on the molecular mechanism underlying CaMKK-mediated signal transduction in normal and pathophysiological conditions. We summarize the current knowledge of the structural, functional, and physiological properties of the regulatory kinase, CaMKK, and the development and application of its pharmacological inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11025
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2022


  • Ca signaling
  • CaM-kinase cascade
  • CaMKK
  • phosphorylation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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