Monozygotic twins with DYT-TOR1A showing jerking movements and levodopa responsiveness

Yoshiyuki Hanaoka, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Harumi Yoshinaga, Ryousuke Miyamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji, Katsuhiro Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: DYT-TOR1A is caused by a GAG deletion in the TOR1A gene. While it usually manifests as early-onset dystonia, its phenotype is extremely diverse, even within one family. Recent reports have revealed that some DYT-TOR1A cases have novel mutations in the TOR1A gene while others have mutations in both TOR1A and another DYT gene (THAP1 or SGCE). Our understanding of the correlation between genotype and phenotype is becoming increasingly complicated. Case presentations: Here, we report on monozygotic twins who developed dystonia in childhood. The two children had different presentations in terms of onset age and dominant disturbances, but both exhibited marked diurnal fluctuation and jerking movements of the limbs as well as levodopa/levodopa-carbidopa responsiveness. These features are commonly associated with DYT/PARK-GCH1 and DYT-SGCE, yet these twins had no mutations in the GCH1 or SGCE genes. Whole exome sequencing eventually revealed a single GAG deletion in the TOR1A gene. Conclusion: Monozygotic twins whose only mutation was a GAG deletion in TOR1A exhibited DYT/PARK-GCH1-asssociated features and jerking movements reminiscent of myoclonus. This finding may expand the spectrum of phenotypes associated with DYT-TOR1A, and suggests that levodopa has potential as a treatment for DYT-TOR1A with DYT/PARK-GCH1-associated features.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)783-788
Number of pages6
JournalBrain and Development
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • Jerking movements
  • Levodopa responsiveness
  • Monozygotic twins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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