NADPH oxidase AtrbohD and AtrbohF genes function in ROS-dependent ABA signaling in arabidopsis

June M. Kwak, Izumi C. Mori, Zhen Ming Pei, Nathalie Leonhard, Miguel Angel Torres, Jeffery L. Dangl, Rachel E. Bloom, Sara Bodde, Jonathan D.G. Jones, Julian I. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

826 Citations (Scopus)


Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to function as second messengers in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. However, the question whether ROS production is indeed required for ABA signal transduction in vivo has not yet been addressed, and the molecular mechanisms mediating ROS production during ABA signaling remain unknown. Here, we report identification of two partially redundant Arabidopsis guard cell-expressed NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit genes, AtrbohD and AtrbohF, in which gene disruption impairs ABA signaling. atrbohD/F double mutations impair ABA-induced stomatal closing, ABA promotion of ROS production, ABA-induced cytosolic Ca2+ increases and ABA-activation of plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable channels in guard cells. Exogenous H2O2 rescues both Ca2+ channel activation and stomatal closing in atrbohD/F. ABA inhibition of seed germination and root elongation are impaired in atrbohD/F, suggesting more general roles for ROS and NADPH oxidases in ABA signaling. These data provide direct molecular genetic and cell biological evidence that ROS are rate-limiting second messengers in ABA signaling, and that the AtrbohD and AtrbohF NADPH oxidases function in guard cell ABA signal transduction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2623-2633
Number of pages11
JournalEMBO Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Abscisic acid
  • Calcium channels
  • Guard cell
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Stomata

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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