The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between neonatal sepsis and future development of Kawasaki disease (KD). We analyzed data from the National Hospital Organization Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NHO-NICU) registry study in Japan. Participants in this study were children with a history of hospitalization in the NICU at the participating institutions from 2010 to 2014. A questionnaire was administered at age 3 years to obtain information about the patient’s history of KD. There were 8275 infants who were eligible for this study. At 3 years of age, parents of 2161 children responded to the follow-up survey (follow-up rate, 26.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for preterm birth, sex, use of antibiotics in the NICU, parity, and maternal smoking showed that children with neonatal sepsis were more likely to have a history of KD at 3 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 11.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84–47.96). Conclusions: Among infants admitted to the NICU, neonatal sepsis might be associated with development of KD later in life. Further large studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between neonatal infections and KD development.What is Known:• Preterm birth is known to be a risk factor for Kawasaki disease.•It is not yet known which factors related to preterm birth increase the risk of developing Kawasaki disease.What is New:•Neonatal sepsis is associated with an increased risk of subsequent development of Kawasaki disease.•Antibiotic use in the neonatal intensive care unit may also be an independent risk factor for subsequent development of Kawasaki disease.
- Kawasaki disease
- Neonatal sepsis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health