Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Assessment: Cross-cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Portuguese Abe’s BPSD Score (ABS)

Ana Rita Ferreira, Andreia Sá, Claudia Camila Dias, Mário R. Simões, Koji Abe, Lia Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: This study aims to report on the development and psychometric properties of the Portuguese-language Abe’s BPSD score (ABS) to screen for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Methods: ISPOR and COSMIN recommendations were followed to translate and culturally adapt the ABS. A validation study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the newly-translated instrument. Outpatients attending a psychogeriatric consultation were included by consecutive referrals and were assessed with the ABS, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and NPI Caregiver Distress scale (NPI-D), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The ABS reliability (internal consistency, item-total correlations, inter-rater and test-retest reliability), validity (concurrent and convergent), feasibility and diagnostic accuracy were examined. Results: Overall, 107 participants were included. The ABS Cronbach alpha was 0.672, and item-total correlations ranged from −0.056 to 0.546. Strong inter-rater (ICC 0.997; 95%CI: 0.995–0.999) and test-retest reliability (ICC 0.976; 95%CI: 0.958–0.986) were found. Concurrent validity with NPI was high (rs = 0.847, p < .001), and correlations with MMSE and NPI-D were also significant. An exploratory threshold score ≥2 is proposed to identify clinically relevant NPS. Conclusions: Data provide satisfactory proof of ABS psychometric characteristics. Nevertheless, some items exhibited less optimal properties. Clinical Implications: The newly-translated instrument proved to be relevant, valid and easy to use in a real geriatric clinical setting.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Gerontologist
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Neuropsychiatric symptoms
  • cross-cultural adaptation
  • dementia
  • measurement
  • validation study

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Health(social science)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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