Novel animal glioma models that separately exhibit two different invasive and angiogenic phenotypes of human glioblastomas

Satoshi Inoue, Tomotsugu Ichikawa, Kazuhiko Kurozumi, Tomoko Maruo, Manabu Onishi, Koichi Yoshida, Kentaro Fujii, Hirokazu Kambara, E. Antonio Chiocca, Isao Date

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: Invasive behaviors of malignant gliomas are fundamental traits and major reasons for treatment failure. Delineation of invasive growth is important in establishing treatment for gliomas and experimental neuro-oncology could benefit from an invasive glioma model. In this study, we established two new cell line-based animal models of invasive glioma. Methods: Two cell lines, J3T-1 and J3T-2, were derived from the same parental canine glioma cell line, J3T. These cells were inoculated to establish brain tumors in athymic mice and rats. Pathologic samples of these animal gliomas were examined to analyze invasive patterns in relation to angiogenesis, and were compared with human glioblastoma samples. The molecular profiles of these cell lines were also shown. Results: Histologically, J3T-1 and J3T-2 tumors exhibited different invasive patterns. J3T-1 cells clustered around newly developed vessels at tumor borders, whereas J3T-2 cells showed diffuse single cell infiltration into surrounding healthy parenchyma. In human malignant glioma samples, both types of invasion were observed concomitantly. Molecular profiles of these cell lines were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and with quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, hypoxia-inducible factor-1, and platelet-derived growth factor were overexpressed in J3T-1 cells rather than in J3T-2 cells, whereas integrin αvβ3, matrix metalloproteinase-2, nestin, and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine were overexpressed in J3T-2 cells rather than in J3T-1 cells. Conclusions: These animal models histologically recapitulated two invasive and angiogenic phenotypes, namely angiogenesis-dependent and angiogenesis-independent invasion, also observed in human glioblastoma. These cell lines provided a reproducible in vitro and in vivo system to analyze the mechanisms of invasion and angiogenesis in glioma progression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)670-682
Number of pages13
JournalWorld Neurosurgery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012


  • Angiogenesis
  • Animal brain tumor model
  • Glioma
  • Invasion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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