Outcome Bias in Decision Making on Punishment or Reward

Atsuo Murata, Tomoko Nakamura, Yasunari Matsushita, Makoto Moriwaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


We paid attention to one of the cognitive biases, that is, the outcome bias. We explored the evidence of outcome bias in a two-player economic game experiment where reward allocation is made between two players. The outcome bias occurred even when the intention of Player 1 was fair or generous. Thus, we could verify the hypothesis that we are readily led into the outcome bias. The comparative results between the two conditions (intentional and no-intentional conditions) definitely showed that Player 2 punished Player 1 to a larger extent when the outcome was disadvantageous for Player 2 (selfish outcome) irrespective of whether the die was chosen out of three types intentionally or not.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3911-3916
Number of pages6
JournalProcedia Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Decision making
  • Economic game
  • Intention
  • Outcome
  • Outcome bias
  • Process
  • Safety management

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence


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