Oyster shell as pH control substitute for two stage anaerobic co-digestion system

Peni Astrini Notodarmojo, Takeshi Fujiwara, Habuer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Alkali substitute for two-stage anaerobic co-digestion system using kitchen waste, agriculture waste, and horse dung was compared with the standard alkali chemical used for pH control. The substitute used in this experiment is oyster shell waste. The study aims to investigate and evaluate the performance of oyster shells to overcome problems such as pH drops in the hydrolysis stage, greenhouse gas emission from chemical use, and methanogenesis stage performance such as methane gas yield and quality of biogas production. The result shows hydrolysate from control treatment using alkali has the highest volatile solid (VS) (1.18 %) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) (27.7 g/L). Oyster shell treatment has lower VS (1.14 %) and COD (25.01 g/L), but not significantly different from control. One-time oyster shell application can maintain reactor pH throughout the acid phase. Alkali treatment needs multiple doses to maintain the reactor in the intended pH range. At the end of the first stage, liquid hydrolysate pH value from alkali, oyster shell and no pH control treatment are 6.5, 5.29 and 3.8. As a result of comparing greenhouse gases emission in the cases of using NaOH as alkali, and oyster shell by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method, equivalent weight of CO2 emission from the oyster shell is lower by 0.0504 kg-CO2/kg-waste than that from alkali or only 0.15 times. In methanogenesis stage, alkali treatment produced 31 % higher methane gas yield (429.82 mL CH4/g VS in 1.64 g VS/L/d) compared to oyster shell treatment (321.32 mL CH4/g VS in 2.8 g VS/L/d). Methane gas yields of oyster treatment are stable through the different range of organic loading rate (OLR) while in alkali treatment the gas yield tends to increase in proportion with higher OLR. Highest methane gas percentage in biogas produced from alkali treatment (77.53 %), while in oyster shell treatment highest methane gas percentage is 71.11 %. Alkali treatment performs better in methane gas production using two stage anaerobic digesters, but oyster shells offer advantages in terms of practicality, stability and environmental impact.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)481-486
Number of pages6
JournalChemical Engineering Transactions
Publication statusPublished - 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Oyster shell as pH control substitute for two stage anaerobic co-digestion system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this