Patient satisfaction with deep versus light/moderate sedation for non-surgical procedures: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Hiroshi Hoshijima, Hitoshi Higuchi, Aiji Sato Boku, Makiko Shibuya, Yoshinari Morimoto, Toshiaki Fujisawa, Kentaro Mizuta

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1 Citation (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Deep sedation relieves a patient's anxiety and stress during the procedure by inducing patient unconsciousness. However, it remains unclear whether deep sedation actually improves patient satisfaction with the procedure. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the satisfaction of patients undergoing deep sedation with that of those undergoing light/moderate sedation during non-surgical procedures. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed using electronic databases (search until September 2020). The primary outcome was whether patient satisfaction was higher after deep sedation or light/moderate sedation. The secondary outcome was the relative safety of deep sedation compared with light/moderate sedation in terms of oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate. The tertiary outcomes were the relative procedure and recovery times for deep versus light/moderate sedation.Data from each of the trials were combined, and calculations were made using DerSimonian and Laird random effects models. The pooled effect estimates for patient satisfaction were evaluated using relative risk (RR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). The pooled effect estimates for continuous data are expressed as weighted mean difference with the 95% CI. We assessed heterogeneity with the Cochrane Q statistic and the I2 statistic. The risk of bias assessment and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach were used as the quality assessment method. RESULTS: After removing unrelated studies and applying the exclusion criterion, 5 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. Patient satisfaction was significantly higher in those who received deep sedation compared with light/moderate sedation (relative risk = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.20; P = .003; Cochrane Q = 25.0; I2 = 76%).There was no significant difference in oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and procedure times according to whether the procedures were performed under deep or light/moderate sedation. However, the recovery time was significantly prolonged in patients under deep sedation. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis suggests that deep sedation resulted in improved patient satisfaction compared with light/moderate sedation. Deep sedation is recommended for patients undergoing procedures because it improves patient satisfaction. However, respiration and circulation should be carefully monitored both intra-operatively and postoperatively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e27176
Issue number36
Publication statusPublished - Sept 10 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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