Penetration in vitro of bovine oocytes during maturation by frozen-thawed spermatozoa

K. Niwa, C. K. Park, K. Okuda

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45 Citations (Scopus)


Bovine immature oocytes cultured for various times in TC-199 medium were inseminated with frozen-thawed spermatozoa in Medium BO with caffeine (5 mM) and heparin (10 μg/ml). Very high penetration rates (95-100%) were obtained in all oocytes which had been cultured for 0-20 h. When oocytes cultured for 0 and 4 h were inseminated, 100% of them were penetrated and had a decondensing sperm head and most of the oocytes remained at the stage of condensed germinal vesicle (GV) to telophase-I 20-22 h after insemination. The formation of male and female pronuclei was first observed in oocytes inseminated 8 h after culture. The proportions of polyspermy and average number of spermatozoa in penetrated oocytes gradually decreased as oocyte maturation proceeded. Penetration of at least one spermatozoon with a decondensing head into oocytes at the GV stage (without culture) was almost completed up to 8 h after insemination and at that time most of the penetrated oocytes were still at the stage of GV or condensed GV. These results indicate that maturation of bovine oocytes is not required for sperm penetration into the vitellus or for sperm nuclear decondensation under the in-vitro conditions used.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)329-336
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Reproduction and Fertility
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1991


  • bovine
  • immature oocytes
  • in-vitro fertilization
  • maturation
  • sperm nuclear decondensation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Embryology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Developmental Biology


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