Photoinitiator-initiated estrogenic activity in human breast cancer cell line mcf-7

Miwa Morizane, Yoichi Kawasaki, Taro Miura, Kenta Yagi, Satoru Esumi, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Toshiaki Sendo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


A recent in vitro study reported that the photoinitiator 2-isopropylthioxanthone (2-ITX) is an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC). However, it is not clear whether other photoinitiators such as 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (1-HCHPK) and 2-methyl-4′-(methylthio)-2-morpholinopropiophenone (MTMP) produce endocrine-disrupting effects. The purpose of this study was thus to assess the association between estrogenic activity and exposure to photoinitiators. For estimation of the proliferative effect of the photoinitiators, the E-screen assay was used. Six photoinitiators, 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (2,2-DMPAP), 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino)benzoate (2-EHDAB), 1-HCHPK, 2-ITX, methyl-2-benzoylbenzoate (MBB), and MTMP, significantly increased number of MCF-7 cells, an estrogen-sensitive human breast cancer cell line. In addition, pretreatment with estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists such as clomiphene, tamoxifen, or fulvestrant, significantly reversed the proliferative effect of each photoinitiator. Data demonstrated that the six photoinitiators produced endocrine-disrupting effects and that these photoinitiators interacted with ER as agonists. Evidence indicates that the six photoinitiators demonstrated estrogenic activity via ER as agonists.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1450-1460
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues
Issue number23-24
Publication statusPublished - Dec 17 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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