Planning of alternative countermeasures for a station blackout at a boiling water reactor using multilevel flow modeling

Mengchu Song, Akio Gofuku

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Operators face challenges to plan alternative countermeasures when no procedure exists to address the current plant state. A model-based approach is desired to aid operators in acquiring plant resources and deriving response plans. Multilevel flow modeling (MFM) is a functional modeling methodology that can represent intentional knowledge about systems, which is essential in response planning. This article investigates the capabilities of MFM to plan alternatives. It is concluded that MFM has a knowledge capability to represent alternative means that are designed for given ends and a reasoning capability to identify alternative functions that can causally influence the goal achievement. The second capability can be applied to find originally unassociated means to achieve a goal. This is vital in a situation where all designed means have failed. A technique of procedure synthesis can be used to express identified alternatives as a series of operations. A case of station blackout occurring at the boiling water reactor is described. An MFM model of a boiling water reactor is built according to the analysis of goals and functions. The accident situations are defined by the model, and several alternative countermeasures in terms of operating procedures are generated to achieve the goal of core cooling.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)542-552
Number of pages11
JournalNuclear Engineering and Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - May 2018


  • Alternative Countermeasure
  • Decision-Making Support
  • Multilevel Flow Modeling
  • Response Planning
  • Station Blackout

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering


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