Posthatching development of spinal motoneurons in the angelfish Pterophyllum scalare

Masayuki Yoshida, Masaomi Fudoji, Hirotaka Sakamoto, Kazumasa Uematsu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated the posthatching developmental sequence of spinal motoneurons innervating the axial muscles in the teleost angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare, by means of retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase. Two discrete types of spinal motoneurons, primary-type motoneurons and secondary motoneurons were labeled in a temporally different sequence during the course of larval development. These two types of motoneurons were morphologically distinguishable from one other. Primary- type motoneurons are generated by day 1 posthatching and do not increase in number over the observed period (to day 12 posthatching). In contrast, the secondary motoneurons increase in number through posthatching day 3. Differentiation of the spinal motoneurons appears to be nearly complete a few days before the onset of free swimming. In addition, the data suggest that the differentiation of secondary motoneurons precedes the development of the red muscle that is to be innervated by the motoneurons.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)180-186
Number of pages7
JournalBrain, behavior and evolution
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • Angelfish
  • Development
  • HRP
  • Motoneuron
  • Spinal cord

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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