Prognostic value of modified Glasgow Prognostic Score in non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer

Shoji Kimura, David D’ Andrea, Francesco Soria, Beat Foerster, Mohammad Abufaraj, Mihai D. Vartolomei, Takehiro Iwata, Pierre I. Karakiewicz, Michael Rink, Kilian M. Gust, Shin Egawa, Shahrokh F. Shariat

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19 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) in patients with non–muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with transurethral resection of bladder with or without intravesical therapy. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our medical records to identify 1,096 consecutive patients with NMIBC treated with transurethral resection of bladder. The mGPS of each patient was calculated on the basis of preoperative serum C-reactive protein and albumin. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of mGPS with recurrence-free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: The mGPS of 0, 1, and 2 was observed in 764 (69.7%), 299 (27.3%), and 33 (3.0%) patients, respectively. On univariable analysis, mGPS 2 was associated with worse RFS (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 1.60, 95%; CI: 1.01–2.54). However, on multivariable analyses, which adjusted for the effects of established clinicopathologic features, mGPS 2 did not maintain its independent association with RFS (HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.88–2.26). On multivariable analysis, mGPS 1 and 2 were both independently associated with worse PFS compared to mGPS 0 (HR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.37–3.12 and HR: 3.31, 95% CI: 1.40–7.87, respectively). The inclusion of mGPS improved the discrimination of a standard prognostic model for PFS from 71.6% to 73.8%. In subgroup analyses, mGPS 1 was associated with PFS (HR 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24–3.52) on multivariable analysis in patients with the European Association of Urology high-risk group. Additionally, in patients treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin, mGPS 2 was associated with disease PFS (HR10.1, 95% CI: 2.61–38.8). Conclusions: The mGPS independently predicts PFS in patients with NMIBC. Inclusion of mGPS in prognostic models might help identify patients who are more likely to fail standard therapy and experience disease progression and, therefore, may benefit from intensified therapy such as radical cystectomy or inclusion in clinical trials of novel immunotherapeutics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179.e19-179.e28
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019


  • Bladder cancer
  • Modified Glasgow prognostic score
  • Non–muscle-invasive
  • Outcomes
  • Progression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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