Protocols for monitoring harmful algal blooms for sustainable aquaculture and coastal fisheries in chile

Kyoko Yarimizu, So Fujiyoshi, Mikihiko Kawai, Luis Norambuena-Subiabre, Emma Karin Cascales, Joaquin Ignacio Rilling, Jonnathan Vilugrón, Henry Cameron, Karen Vergara, Jesus Morón-López, Jacquelinne J. Acuña, Gonzalo Gajardo, Oscar Espinoza-González, Leonardo Guzmán, Milko A. Jorquera, Satoshi Nagai, Gemita Pizarro, Carlos Riquelme, Shoko Ueki, Fumito Maruyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Harmful algae blooms (HABs) cause acute effects on marine ecosystems due to their production of endogenous toxins or their enormous biomass, leading to significant impacts on local economies and public health. Although HAB monitoring has been intensively performed at spatiotemporal scales in coastal areas of the world over the last decades, procedures have not yet been standardized. HAB monitoring procedures are complicated and consist of many methodologies, including physical, chemical, and biological water sample measurements. Each monitoring program currently uses different combinations of methodologies depending on site specific purposes, and many prior programs refer to the procedures in quotations. HAB monitoring programs in Chile have adopted the traditional microscopic and toxin analyses but not molecular biology and bacterial assemblage approaches. Here we select and optimize the HAB monitoring methodologies suitable for Chilean geography, emphasizing on metabarcoding analyses accompanied by the classical tools with considerations including cost, materials and instrument availability, and easiness and efficiency of performance. We present results from a pilot study using the standardized stepwise protocols, demonstrating feasibility and plausibility for sampling and analysis for the HAB monitoring. Such specific instructions in the standardized protocol are critical obtaining quality data under various research environments involving multiple stations, different analysts, various time-points, and long HAB monitoring duration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7642
Pages (from-to)1-24
Number of pages24
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number20
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2 2020


  • Coastal monitoring
  • DNA extraction
  • HAB monitoring
  • Harmful algae
  • Metabarcoding analysis
  • Microscope
  • Nutrient assay
  • Phytoplankton
  • Pigment assay
  • Toxin assay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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