Prototype of simulation of orthognathic surgery using a virtual reality haptic device

Taiji Sohmura, H. Hojo, M. Nakajima, K. Wakabayashi, M. Nagao, S. Iida, T. Kitagawa, M. Kogo, T. Kojima, K. Matsumura, T. Nakamura, J. Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


A maxillofacial simulator can support education and training. In the present study, cutting, separation, and quantitative rearrangement of bone during orthognathic surgery were simulated by means of a haptic device with virtual tactile perception. Computed tomographic (CT) images of two patients with severe jaw deformity, one women and one man, were input into the device. In the woman, Le Fort I osteotomy of the maxilla and sagittal splitting ramus osteotomy of the mandible were initially simulated. During surgery with the haptic device, separation and rearrangement of the maxilla and the ramus of the mandible were initially processed. However, there was discrepancy and overlapping of the ramus with the mandible. Intraoral vertical osteotomy of the right ramus was then performed, with satisfactory results and less discrepancy and interference. The simulation was referred to at surgery, and satisfactory surgical assistance was postoperatively confirmed on CT images. The male patient had severe jaw deformity due to unequal growth between the ramuses, resulting in anterior crossbite. Sagittal splitting ramus osteotomy with rotation of the mandible was successfully simulated. Because of its versatility and functions, the present device was found to be useful for simulating various procedures for orthognathic surgery and thereby three-dimensionally determine surgical movements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)740-750
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-D
  • CT image
  • Computer
  • Osteotomy
  • Surgical simulation
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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