Purpose: Some long-term survivors after surgery for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with induction chemoradiotherapy (trimodality treatment) develop chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). The aim of our study was to assess the characteristics and outcomes of CPA that develops after trimodality treatment. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 187 NSCLC patients who underwent trimodality treatment between 1999 and 2018. Results: Six male ever-smoker patients developed CPA. All 6 patients had undergone extended resection for NSCLC and had a history of either adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 3) or radiation pneumonitis (n = 4). Among the 4 patients with CPA localized in a single lung, 3 patients were treated surgically (completion pneumonectomy or cavernostomy) and 1 patient was treated with antifungal therapy alone. Both treatments led to the improved control of CPA. In contrast, patients with CPA in both lungs were not candidates for surgery, and died of CPA. The survival rates after trimodality treatment in the CPA group and the group without CPA were comparable (10-year survival rate, 50.0% vs. 57.6%, P = 0.59). Conclusion: The early diagnosis of CPA localized in a single lung after NSCLC surgery is critical to improving control and survival in patients with CPA.
- Lung cancer
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