Ralstonia solanacearum Type III Effector RipAC Targets SGT1 to Suppress Effector-Triggered Immunity

Masahito Nakano, Yuki Ichinose, Takafumi Mukaihara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Ralstonia solanacearum injects type III effectors into host cells to cause bacterial wilt in Solanaceae plants. To identify R. solanacearum effectors that suppress effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in plants, we evaluated R. solanacearum RS1000 effectors for their ability to suppress a hypersensitive response (HR) induced by the avirulence (Avr) effector RipAA in Nicotiana benthamiana. Out of the 11 effectors tested, 4 suppressed RipAA-triggered HR cell death. Among them, RipAC contains tandem repeats of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif, which serves as the structural scaffold for a protein-protein interaction. We found that the LRR domain of RipAC was indispensable for the suppression of HR cell death during the recognition of RipAA and another Avr effector RipP1. By yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified N. benthamiana SGT1, an adaptor protein that forms a molecular chaperone complex with RAR1, as a host factor of the RipAC target. RipAC interacted with NbSGT1 in yeast and plant cells. Upon the formation of the molecular chaperone complex, the presence of RipAC markedly inhibits the interaction between NbSGT1 and NbRAR1. The RipAA- and RipP1-triggered HR cell deaths were not observed in NbSGT1-silenced plants. The introduction of RipAC was complementary to the reduced growth of the R. solanacearum mutant strain in N. benthamiana. These findings indicate that R. solanacearum uses RipAC to subvert the NbSGT1-mediated formation of the molecular chaperone complex and suppress ETI responses during the recognition of Avr effectors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2067-2076
Number of pages10
JournalPlant & cell physiology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Feb 4 2021


  • Effector-triggered immunity
  • Hypersensitive response
  • Nicotiana plants
  • Ralstonia solanacearum
  • Type III effector

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology


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