Biological rhythms lie at the center of regulatory schemes that control many aspects of living systems. At the cellular level, meaningful responses to external stimuli depend on propagation and quenching of a signal to maintain vigilance for subsequent stimulation or changes that serve to shape and modulate the response. The hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad endocrine axis that controls reproductive development and function relies on control through rhythmic stimulation. Central to this axis is the pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes by hypothalamic neurons through episodic release of the neuropeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Alterations in pulsatile stimulation of the gonadotropes result in differential synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins LH and FSH and changes in the expression of their respective hormone subunit genes. The requirement to amplify signals arising from activation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor and to rapidly quench the resultant signal to preserve an adaptive response suggests the need for rapid activation and feedback control operating at the level of intracellular signaling. Emerging data suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can fulfill this role in the GnRH receptor signaling through activation of MAP kinase signaling cascades, control of negative feedback, and participation in the secretory process. Results obtained in gonadotrope cell lines or other cell models indicate that ROS can participate in each of these regulatory cascades. We discuss the potential advantage of reactive oxygen signaling for modulating the gonadotrope response to GnRH stimulation and the potential mechanisms for this action. These observations suggest further targets of study for regulation in the gonadotrope.
|Journal||Frontiers in Endocrinology|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 30 2017|
- Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
- Mitogen-activated protein kinase
- Reactive oxygen species
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism