Regulation of proximal-distal intercalation during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum)

Akira Satoh, Gillian M.C. Cummings, Susan V. Bryant, David M. Gardiner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Intercalation is the process whereby cells located at the boundary of a wound interact to stimulate proliferation and the restoration of the structures between the boundaries that were lost during wounding. Thus, intercalation is widely considered to be the mechanism of regeneration. When a salamander limb is amputated, the entire cascade of regeneration events is activated, and the missing limb segments and their boundaries (joints) as well as the structures within each segment are regenerated. Therefore, in an amputated limb it is not possible to distinguish between intersegmental regeneration (formation of new segments/joints) and intrasegmental regeneration (formation of structures within a given segment), and it is not possible to study the differential regulation of these two processes. We have used two models for regeneration that allow us to study these two processes independently, and report that inter- and intrasegmental regeneration are different processes regulated by different signaling pathways. New limb segments/joints can be regenerated from cells that dedifferentiate to form blastema cells in response to signaling that is mediated in part by fibroblast growth factor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)785-798
Number of pages14
JournalDevelopment Growth and Differentiation
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Axolotl
  • Fibroblast growth factor 2
  • Intercalation
  • Limb
  • Regeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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