Algorithms to retrieve the snow grain-size and the concentration of snow impurities were developed using a theoretical bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model of the snow surface. In this model, snow grains are assumed to be independent spherical ice particles, and the BRDF is calculated with multiple scattering by snow particles. Using these algorithms, the snow grain-size and snow impurities were retrieved from Airborne Multispectral Scanner (AMSS) images at the visible (λ = 0.545 μm) and near-infrared (λ = 1.24, 1.64 and 2.23 μm) wavelengths observed over the flat snowfield in eastern Hokkaido, Japan, in February 1998. The estimated snow grain-size and impurities were consistent with the results of in situ measurements on the snow surface. For snow grain-size, measured reflectances in the different near-infrared AMSS channels indicated grain-size differences in the vertical profile of the snowpack.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Earth-Surface Processes