Renal tubulointerstitial injury, an inflammation-associated condition, is a major cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Levels of activated factor X (FXa), a blood coagulation factor, are increased in various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of an FXa inhibitor against renal tubulointerstitial injury using unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice (a renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis model) and the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) database. The renal expression levels of FX and the FXa receptors protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 were significantly higher in UUO mice than in sham-operated mice. UUO-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis and extracellular matrix expression were suppressed in UUO mice treated with the FXa inhibitor edoxaban. Additionally, edoxaban attenuated UUO-induced macrophage infiltration and inflammatory molecule upregulation. In an analysis of the FAERS database, there were significantly fewer reports of tubulointerstitial nephritis for patients treated with FXa inhibitors than for patients not treated with inhibitors. These results suggest that FXa inhibitors exert protective effects against CKD by inhibiting tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
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