Repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity of perfluorododecanoic acid in rats

Hina Kato, Sakiko Fujii, Mika Takahashi, Mariko Matsumoto, Mutsuko Hirata-Koizumi, Atsushi Ono, Akihiko Hirose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) are a series of environmental contaminants that have received attention because of their possible adverse effects on wildlife and human health. Although many toxicological studies have been performed on perfluorooctanoic acid with carbon chain length C8, available toxicity data on PFCAs with longer chains are still insufficient to evaluate their hazard. A combined repeated dose and reproductive/developmental toxicity screening study for perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA; C12) was conducted in accordance with OECD guideline 422 to fill these toxicity data gaps. PFDoA was administered by gavage to male and female rats at 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg/day. The administration of PFDoA at 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg/day for 42-47 days mainly affected the liver, in which hypertrophy, necrosis, and inflammatory cholestasis were noted. Body weight gain was markedly inhibited in the 2.5 mg/kg/day group, and a decrease in hematopoiesis in the bone marrow and atrophic changes in the spleen, thymus, and adrenal gland were also observed. Regarding reproductive/developmental toxicity, various histopathological changes, including decreased spermatid and spermatozoa counts, were observed in the male reproductive organs, while continuous diestrous was observed in the females of the 2.5 mg/kg/day group. Seven of twelve females receiving 2.5 mg/kg/day died during late pregnancy while four other females in this group did not deliver live pups. No reproductive or developmental parameters changed at 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg/day. Based on these results, the NOAELs of PFDoA were concluded to be 0.1 mg/kg/day for repeated dose toxicity and 0.5 mg/kg/day for reproductive/developmental toxicity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1244-1263
Number of pages20
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Developmental toxicity
  • Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid
  • Perfluorododecanoic acid
  • Rat
  • Repeated dose toxicity
  • Reproductive toxicity
  • Screening test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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