Reversible watermark with large capacity based on the prediction error expansion

Minoru Kuribayashi, Masakatu Morii, Hatsukazu Tanaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


A reversible watermark algorithm with large capacity has been developed by applying the difference expansion of a generalized integer transform. In this algorithm, a watermark signal is inserted in the LSB of the difference values among pixels. In this paper, we apply the prediction errors calculated by a predictor in JPEG-LS for embedding watermark, which contributes to increase the amount of embedded information with less degradation. As one of the drawbacks discovered in the above conventional method is the large size of the embedded location map introduced to make it reversible, we decrease the large size of the location map by vectorization, and then modify the composition of the map using the local characteristics. We also exclude the positions such that the modification in the embedding operation cannot increase the capacity but merely degrade the image quality, which can be applicable to the conventional methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1780-1790
Number of pages11
JournalIEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Location map
  • Prediction error
  • Reversible watermark

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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