Root-surface gap-formation with RMGIC restorations minimized by reduced P/L ratio of the first increment and delayed polishing

Masao Irie, Rosalina Tjandrawinata, Kazuomi Suzuki, David C. Watts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: This in vitro study evaluated the effect on interfacial gap-formation around resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGIC) root surface restorations with (a) variations in powder/liquid ratio (P/L) of the first increment of an incremental procedure, compared with a bulk restoration technique, and (b) delayed versus immediate polishing, to permit maturation. Methods: Cavity preparations were placed in premolar teeth on upper facial root surfaces. Two RMGICs were studied (Fuji II LC and Vitremer), with their associated conditioner or primer, applied with an incremental technique. The P/L ratio of the first increment was reduced to fractional (normalized) values between 0.2 and 1.0 of the manufacturers' recommended P/L, and the manufacturers' P/L was used for the second increment. Control groups were bulk filled. After polishing, either: (i) immediately after light-activation or (ii) after 24 h storage, the restored teeth were sectioned in a buccolingual direction through the center of the restoration and the presence or absence of marginal gaps was measured at ×1000 magnification at 14 points (each 0.5-mm apart) along the cavity restoration interface; (n=10; total points measured per group=140). Results: For both RMGICs, significant differences (p<0.05) in gap-incidence were observed between polishing (i) immediately and (ii) after one-day storage. In the former case, 30-70 gaps were found, with or without the incremental technique. In the latter case, only 2-14 gaps were observed. With fluid mixes (normalized P/L ratios between 0.3 and 0.6) for the first increment, gap-formation was greatly reduced, especially with Fuji II LC. Significance: To minimize gap formation, more fluid mixes could be used especially with Fuji II LC to give improved adaptation to the dentin. Secondly, whenever possible, polishing should be delayed on the final increment to permit maturation and minimize mechanical disruption of both increments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)486-497
Number of pages12
JournalDental Materials
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Incremental technique
  • Interfacial gap formation
  • Resin-modified glass-ionomer cement
  • Root surface restoration
  • Shrinkage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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