Rules of origin and consumer-hurting free trade agreements*

Hiroshi Mukunoki, Hirofumi Okoshi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines how the rules of origin (RoO) of a free trade agreement (FTA) affect firms' pricing strategies. The value-added criterion (VAC) of the RoO requires firms to add more than a certain level of value within an FTA when firms use inputs originating from outside the FTA. The VAC may work as a price floor, and the resulting increases in prices can benefit all firms if it induces an offshoring firm to manipulate its output price. Meanwhile, a consumer-hurting FTA formation is possible, even if all firms make tariff-free exports. Furthermore, such an FTA formation may worsen total welfare.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2303-2318
Number of pages16
JournalWorld Economy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • free trade agreements
  • pricing strategy
  • rules of origin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Accounting
  • Finance
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Political Science and International Relations


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