Sally-Anne Test in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease Dementia

Shintaro Takenoshita, Seishi Terada, Osamu Yokota, Yumiko Kutoku, Yosuke Wakutani, Makoto Nakashima, Yohko Maki, Hideyuki Hattori, Norihito Yamada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Social cognition has recently been recognized as one of the essential cognitive domains. Some reports suggested that patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADD) presented significant theory of mind deficits even in the mild condition. However, most previous studies included only small numbers of patients with ADD. The present study administered the first-order false belief (Sally-Anne) test to 116 consecutive patients with ADD from the outpatient units of the Memory Clinic and compared the characteristics of the two groups with correct and incorrect answers on the test. Then various clinical characteristics were evaluated. Only 37.1 of patients with ADD correctly answered the Sally-Anne test with the right explanation. Comparison between the two groups of correct and incorrect answers revealed a significant association between the frontal assessment battery score and the result of the Sally-Anne test in the multiple logistic regression analyses. Thus, patients with ADD presented a significant deficit in social cognition even in the mild condition. Frontal dysfunction was thought to be related to the deficits in mild ADD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1029-1036
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • Alzheimer's disease
  • case control studies
  • cognition
  • dementia
  • neuropsychological test
  • prospective studies
  • theory of mind

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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