Scalability of hybrid programming for a CFD code on the Earth Simulator

K. Itakura, A. Uno, M. Yokokawa, T. Ishihara, Y. Kaneda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


The Earth Simulator (ES) is an SMP cluster system. There are two types of parallel programming models available on the ES. One is a flat programming model, in which a parallel program is implemented by MPI interfaces only, both within an SMP node and among nodes. The other is a hybrid programming model, in which a parallel program is written by using thread programming within an SMP node and MPI programming among nodes simultaneously. It is generally known that it is difficult to obtain the same high level of performance using the hybrid programming model as can be achieved with the flat programming model. In this paper, we have evaluated scalability of the code for direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations on the ES. The hybrid programming model achieves the sustained performance of 346.9 Gflop/s, while the flat programming model achieves 296.4 Gflop/s with 16 PNs of the ES for a DNS problem size of 256 3. For small scale problems, however, the hybrid programming model is not as efficient because of microtasking overhead. It is shown that there is an advantage for the hybrid programming model on the ES for the larger size problems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1329-1343
Number of pages15
JournalParallel Computing
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Earth Simulator
  • Hybrid programming
  • MPI programming
  • SMP cluster
  • Scalability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Artificial Intelligence


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