Self-reference effect on automatic and intentional memory

Takashi Horiuchi, Telsuya Fujita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The present study examined whether the self-reference effect occurred when memory retrieval was automatic. The process-dissociation procedure (e.g., Jacoby, 1991; Toth. Reingold, & Jacoby, 1994) was used to separate automatic and intentional, i.e., consciously controlled, components of memory in a word-stem completion task. In the learning phase, subjects were asked to rate trait words in one of the three ways of encoding: self-reference, semantic, and physical. Immediately after the phase, they performed an arithmetic problem for three minutes, and then were given the surprise word-stem recall task under an inclusion and exclusion performance conditions. Estimates derived from a process dissociation procedure showed the self-reference effect was found only in intentional memory, and not in automatic memory. Results therefore suggested that the self-reference effect to occur, intentional use of memory was necessary.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-127
Number of pages7
JournalShinrigaku Kenkyu
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Automatic and intentional memory
  • Process-dissociation procedure
  • Self-reference effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Self-reference effect on automatic and intentional memory'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this